The AP has reported some shocking news that the Environmental Protection Agency has warned that two nonstick and stain-resistant compounds found in drinking water are more dangerous than previously thought and pose health risks even at levels so low they cannot currently be detected.
Even though the two compounds, known as PFOA and PFOS, have been voluntarily phased out by U.S. manufacturers, there are still a limited number of ongoing uses. The problem is that the chemicals remain in the environment because they don’t break down over time and remain in a person’s bloodstream indefinitely. The compounds are part of a larger cluster of “forever chemicals” known as PFAS that have been used in consumer products and industry since the 1940s.
The EPA issued nonbinding health advisories that set health risk thresholds for PFOA and PFOS to “near zero,” replacing 2016 guidelines that had set them at 70 parts per trillion. The chemicals are found in products such as cardboard packaging, carpets, and firefighting foam.
At the same time, the agency is inviting states and territories to apply for $1 billion under the new infrastructure law to address PFAS and other contaminants in drinking water. The money can be used for technical assistance, water quality testing, contractor training, and installation of centralized treatment, officials said.
Multiple frustrated states have set their own drinking water limits to address PFAS contamination, which are far more rigid and stricter than the federal guidelines. The toxic industrial compounds are associated with serious health conditions, including cancer and reduced birth weight.
“People on the front-lines of PFAS contamination have suffered for far too long,” EPA Administrator Michael Regan said in a statement. “That’s why EPA is taking aggressive action as part of a whole-of-government approach to prevent these chemicals from entering the environment and to help protect concerned families from this pervasive challenge.”
The revised health guidelines are based on new science and consider lifetime exposure to the chemicals. As a result, officials are no longer confident that PFAS levels allowed under the 2016 guidelines “do not have adverse health impacts,″ an EPA spokesman said.
The EPA expects to propose national drinking water regulations for PFOA and PFOS later this year, with a final rule expected in 2023.
In a related development, the EPA said that for the first time, it is issuing final health advisories for two chemicals that are considered replacements for PFOA and PFOS. One group is known as GenX chemicals, while the other is known as PFBS. Health advisories for GenX chemicals were set at 10 parts per trillion, while PFBS was set at 2,000 parts per trillion.
The agency said the advisories provide technical information that federal, state, and local agencies can use to address PFAS in drinking water, including water quality monitoring, use of filters and other technologies that reduce PFAS, and strategies to minimize exposure to the substances.
“This is a step in the right direction,″ said Stel Bailey, co-facilitator of the National PFAS Contamination Coalition.
Erik Olson, senior strategic director for health and food at the Natural Resources Defense Council, said, “the science is clear: These chemicals are shockingly toxic at extremely low doses.” He called on the EPA to regulate all PFAS chemicals “with enforceable standards as a single class of chemicals.”
Melanie Benesh, legislative attorney for the Environmental Working Group, said EPA’s announcement “should set off alarm bells for consumers and regulators” alike.
The American Chemistry Council, which represents major chemical companies, said EPA’s announcement “reflects a failure of the agency to follow its accepted practice for ensuring the scientific integrity of its process.” While the advisories are nonbinding, “they will have sweeping implications for policies at the state and federal levels,″ the group said. “These new levels cannot be achieved with existing treatment technology and, in fact, are below levels that can be reliably detected using existing EPA methods.”
The Chemours Co., a DuPont spinoff that uses GenX chemicals to produce fluoropolymers used in semiconductors, mobile phones, hospital ventilators, and other products, called the EPA’s announcement “fundamentally flawed.” It said the agency “disregarded relevant data and issued a health advisory contrary to the agency’s own standards and this administration’s commitment to scientific integrity.”
The company said it is evaluating next steps, “including potential legal action, to address the EPA’s scientifically unsound action.″
An investigation by the state of North Carolina found that Chemours had discharged GenX from its Fayetteville Works plant into the Cape Fear River for years. EPA chief Regan was the state’s top environmental official when the investigation began and led negotiations that resulted in the cleanup of the river. Gov. Roy Cooper and his current environmental chief unveiled a three-pronged strategy to address further efforts to reduce a broad category of PFAS chemicals in water sources.
Legislation passed by the House would set a national drinking water standard for PFAS and direct the EPA to develop discharge limits for a range of industries suspected of releasing PFAS into the water.
It passed the House, but it has stalled in the Senate.