Essential trace mineral supplement* Helps promote energy metabolism* Supports numerous physiological processes* Copper (citrate) is a dietary supplement that helps activate enzymes that are important to energy metabolism. Copper may also facilitate iron absorption to help formulate hemoglobin and red blood cells.* Essential mineral with wide-ranging support *Copper activates a number of enzymes important to energy metabolism. It is the key mineral in lysyl oxidase, an enzyme that weaves together collagen and elastin. Copper assists in the formation of hemoglobin and red blood cells by facilitating iron absorption. It is involved in protein metabolism, the production of RNA, and the synthesis of phospholipids used in the formation of myelin sheaths. Copper is an essential trace mineral that supports a number of crucial physiological processes. FUNCTION Copper is an essential trace element and functions as a cofactor of many enzymes involved in antioxidant defense (superoxide dismutase), connective tissue metabolism (lysyl oxidase), and amine metabolism (amine oxidases). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme in the body’s cellular fluid (the cytosol) and mitochondria (the cell’s powerhouses). SOD destroys harmful superoxide anions that are either generated during normal energy metabolism or coming from environmental pollution. Cytosolic SOD activity is dependent on sufficient levels of copper and zinc. Many studies have shown that increasing dietary intake of these essential trace elements may increase the activity of SOD considerably. As the essential cofactor of several amine oxidases, copper assumes a pivotal role in the metabolism and degradation of amines. Monoamine oxidase is involved in the inactivation of catecholamines. It reacts with substances such as serotonin, norepinephrine, tyramine, and dopamine. Diamine oxidase inactivates histamine and polyamines. Lysyl oxidase acts on the lysyl side chains of collagen and elastin, providing the basis for cross-link formation within connective tissues. INDICATIONS Copper may be a useful nutritional adjunct for individuals who wish to increase their intake of copper. SUGGESTED USE One capsule daily as a dietary supplement, or as directed by a healthcare professional. SIDE EFFECTS No adverse side effects have been reported. STORAGE Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct light. Keep out of reach of children.